Feedback and what good ‘looks like’

I’ve been thinking a lot about feedback lately and reminiscing on my younger days as a sports coach. When introducing a new skill to an individual, it was imperative that I could model, or show an example of what good looks like, otherwise learners would simply not know what they were aiming to achieve.

 

Learning something new is really challenging, it becomes more so if we don’t know what good ‘looks like’. I’m not an engineer, but let’s take the example of learning a fillet lap weld. Without seeing what a good fillet lap weld looks like, it would be nigh on impossible for a learner to do one successfully. Take the correct use of apostrophes – without seeing the various uses of an apostrophe, one simply wouldn’t know know how to use it.

 

Just knowing what good ‘looks like’ isn’t enough to learn something effectively however. Along the way to mastering a fillet lap weld, or correct apostrophe use, there’ll no doubt be mistakes made. This is where feedback is essential. According to Ramaprasad (1983, p.4) ‘feedback is information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter which is used to alter the gap in some way’. In other words, feedback should identify the strengths and weaknesses of performance in relation to what good ‘looks like’. But is it that simple?

 

No. In 1996, Kluger and DiNisi explored the effects of feedback on performance. Their meta-analysis revealed that on average, feedback improved performance but bizarrely, in over a third of cases, feedback actually impeded performance. Upon further exploration, their work revealed that the more effective feedback focussed on the quality of the work (task-oriented), rather than the person (ego-oriented). In other words, focus was on the strengths and areas for development of the work, rather than assigning numbers or grades to the work, which allow for comparisons between learners. In addition to this, they found that more effective feedback focussed on what and how the individual could improve their performance (the future), rather than focussing too much on the performance itself (the past). I liken this to the analogy of driving a car. If we focus too much on what we can see in our rear view mirror, we’ll probably crash (image 1). Whereas, if we acknowledge our mirror, but focus our attention on the road in front, we’re more likely to be moving forward positively (image 2).

Similar findings were noted in the work of Hattie and Timperley (2007); they determined that feedback was best served with clear goals for improvement. If we think back to my above mentioned point about knowing what good ‘looks like’, if feedback is provided in relation to a good example of a fillet lap weld and looks at how current work could be developed to achieve a good standard, then it is more likely that the learner will make improvements.

 

The thing with feedback is that it becomes extremely challenging for a teacher to provide 20-30 learners with regular individual feedback in a session. Here’s the thing, you don’t need to. Once learners are clear with what good ‘looks like’, there are 20-30 other resources at a teacher’s disposal, so why not ask them to provide feedback to one another?

 

Some common methods to do this are identified in Petty’s (2009) fantastic Evidence Based Teaching book. One of his diamonds is the ‘medal and mission’ approach – very simple, yet also very effective. Firstly task centred information is provided to the learner in relation to the goals (what good ‘looks like’) – the medal. Following this, learners are given a clear target for improvement in relation to the goal – the mission. For example:

 

‘Jamal, you have clearly fit-up the plates accurately and your weld indicates that the distance to the joint was good, as the arc is the correct depth (medal). If you look at the model example, the bead size is slightly larger. To increase the size of the bead, you need to decrease the speed that you move along the joint. In your next attempt, continue in the same manner as before, but with a slightly slower speed’ (mission).

 

Similar approaches that may be used include:

  • 2 Stars and a Wish – useful for peer assessment, the learners give one another 2 stars (i.e. 2 things they think their peer has done well in relation to what good ‘looks like’) and a wish (i.e. something they wish could be improved upon in relation to what good ‘looks like’).
  • WWW/EBI – as before, this acknowledges the past – What Went Well (in relation to what good ‘looks like’), before looking to the future with clear guidance for improvement, Even Better If…(in relation to what good ‘looks like’).

 

Whilst peer feedback is really useful, it is worth noting the limitations of the above approaches. Indeed, Nuttall (2007) acknowledges that around 80% of feedback in a typical classroom is between peers, yet around 80% of that feedback is inaccurate. If we can provide suitable structures, such as the above, and ensure that clear success criteria is provided (what good ‘looks like’), then we improve the effectiveness of peer to peer feedback.

 

To summarise, if we really want to maximise feedback in classrooms, we need to ensure the following:

  • Everyone is clear with what good ‘looks like’
  • Feedback looks forward and not back
  • Feedback focuses on the task and not the person
  • Feedback involves everyone

 

References:

Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 77 (1), p. 81-112.

Kluger, A.N. and DiNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119 (2), p. 254-284.

Nuthall, G. (2007). The Hidden Lives of Learners. NZCER Press

Petty, G. (2009). Evidence Based Teaching. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Ramaprasad, A. (1983). On the definition of feedback. Behavioral Science, 28, 4–13.

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Think about thinking hard

I recently stumbled across this statement in Coe’s excellent ‘Improving Education‘ publication and it really hit home:

Some research evidence, along with more anecdotal experience, suggests that students may not necessarily have real learning at the top of their agenda. For example, Nuthall (2005) reports a study in which most students “were thinking about how to get finished quickly or how to get the answer with the least possible effort”. If given the choice between copying out a set of correct answers, with no effort, but no understanding of how to get them, and having to think hard to derive their own answers, check them, correct them and try to develop their own understanding of the underlying logic behind them, how many students would freely choose the latter? And yet, by choosing the former, they are effectively saying, ‘I am not interested in learning.’

Coe goes on to inform us that ‘learning happens when people have to think hard‘. But how do we ensure that learners are both thinking hard, and putting effort into their learning? Easier said than done eh?

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Here’s some ideas for you to think about using with learners at the start of the academic year:

  1. Teach students about the importance of hard work and effort: Now this is no easy feat. Marzano informs us that this can have a high effect of achievement and suggests sharing examples of personal experiences or those that learners can relate to. He also suggests that learners self-assess their effort in lessons when self-assessing achievement against success criteria – not something I have tried myself, but certainly one to consider.
  2. Establish routines early: For those working in an FE college, most learners are joining your class with no idea as to what to expect. they will be in new surroundings, with new people and this is a great opportunity to establish high expectations in the classroom – Start as you mean to go on! If you have learning activities that require little effort, or if learners are allowed to put little effort in, then guess what? Yes, that will be the routine for the year.
  3. Find out what learners know and use the information: Initial assessment is crucial, but I’m not talking the whole sticking the learners on a computer to complete a maths and English IA to determine… well, not-a-lot. What I’m talking about is finding out what the learners know about your subject. Give them an advanced organiser to help them identify current knowledge and how this fits with information they’re going to learn. Use what they know to help them make sense of new information, to challenge misconceptions and to give a clear direction to the learning that they’re about to embark on.
  4. Organise information: Building on from the above, the more organised the information that learners are dealing with, the better. Provide a range of concrete examples to explain abstract concepts and use both verbal and visual information simultaneously (dual coding) to reduce cognitive load. Cognitive science research also indicates the benefits of revisiting information on several occasions over the term/period of learning (distributed practice) to enhance retention. There are many other strategies that have shown time and time again to be effective – summarised clearly for teachers by the learning scientists (every teacher needs this in their life).
  5. Test learners regularly: As with the above, our memory trace is improved when we have to work hard to retrieve information from long term memory, thus improving retention. Therefore, we should aim to test learners frequently through mini quizzes and self testing. This not only supports retrieval practice, but it also allows both teacher and learners to identify strengths and any misconceptions that learner have, thus allowing for appropriate intervention.

All of the above are simple ‘off the shelf’ strategies that may help to increase the effort and ensure that learners are working and thinking hard in your classrooms. They are not silver bullets and may work better in some situations than others, but all are worth considering – particularly as the new term is about to begin.

 

Learning my Craft pt 1.

I’ve been reflecting on where it all began for me as a teacher. At 16, I left school with six GCSEs above grade C and didn’t think that further study was for me, so I embarked upon a career in the leisure industry. I worked for a couple of years as a lifeguard, swimming teacher and fitness instructor before going back into education. When I think about it, it was during this period that I learnt most about the craft of teaching. Let me explain why:

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Like many activities, both gym based exercise and swimming involves a range of motor skills. From the breaststroke technique, to performing a bench press, both involve complex motor skills and for novices, both can be difficult to master. Whilst learner confidence is an important ‘affective’ characteristic in both environments (particularly in swimming, which I might blog about at a later date due to its relevance to FE learning), once a level of confidence is developed, the teaching of a new skill can be done with efficiency and impact. However, the teaching of a skill can also be very inefficient and ineffective. In this post I hope to share some of the theories/strategies that I learnt early on in my career which have helped me to hone my craft and I’d like to think are the more efficient/effective approaches.

 

Further Education (FE) caters for a diverse group, which makes it challenging when recommending particular teaching strategies. Last year I blogged about the different approaches one might take with 3 learners.  There are many technical subjects where the vast majority of learning is skill based (procedural knowledge to the cognitive scientists). When one learns a practical (motor) skill, for example, welding, sewing, cutting, drilling etc, according to Fitts and Posner (1967), there are certain stages that one goes through in order to develop ‘automaticity’. A summary can be found in the table below:

190tab_Main
Image Source

STAGE 1: Cognitive Stage Huber (2013) states that the cognitive stage is:

‘verbal–cognitive in nature (Schmidt & Lee, 2005) because it involves the conveyance (verbal) and acquisition (cognition) of new information. In this stage, the person is trying to process information in an attempt to cognitively understand the requirements and parameters of motor movement.’

In other words, this involves the learner making sense about how to perform a skill. In order to do this, they need to see what ‘good looks like’ (blog to follow). To see this, they require explicit instruction by a competent individual. In the case of a teacher, the most effective way of doing this is to accurately model the skill and explain each step clearly. This is supported by research in the fields of fitness and gymnastics where it was found that effective modelling improved performance over other methods of instruction/development. Of course, as McCueeagh, Weiss and Ross note, there are many other factors to consider when modelling skills, e.g age and stage of learners, but if we think about principles of cognitive load theory, clear, chunked explanations and a combination of coherent visual and auditory information (dual coding) are proven techniques for supporting knowledge acquisition.  When I think back to my fitness instructor course in the early 00’s, effective modelling and instruction was inherent. The main strategy adopted when supporting gym users with new exercises/equipment was NAMSET:

  • N= Name of the Exercise – the name of the skill is outlined by the teacher
  • A= Area of the body worked – the teacher identifies the area of the body that is being worked
  • M= Muscles used – the teacher uses the correct anatomical terminology for muscles used
  • S= Silent demonstration – the teacher demonstrates the new skill in silence
  • E= Explanation of the exercise – the teacher explains the skill in small steps, with key points of consideration.
  • T = Teach the exercise – the teacher supports the learner as they complete the skill

Whilst I didn’t always follow this to the letter, I used the principle to instruct clients and found that they often managed to grasp techniques quickly. Incidentally, I hadn’t heard about cognitive load theory until around 18 months ago, but had been implementing key principles in my instruction. As with any new information, one needs to manage cognitive load and the NAMSET steps allow for this. I’ve placed in bold, the sections that are perhaps most relevant to teaching any new skill.

  1. Name the skill/task. What will you be showing and why? Giving reason and purpose to any new skill is likely to improve the focus.
  2. Where possible, demonstrate how to do it in silence. This allows the learner the opportunity to observe and self talk. I’d like to explore this a little further if I’m honest. I’m not sure that this should come before or after the explanation. Thoughts?
  3. Explain whilst demonstrating. This uses both the visual and auditory pathways to working memory (dual coding) if the explanations are clear and concise. Using complex terminology and excessive information risks losing the focus of learners, and/or overloading their working memory.  What are the key points for consideration? How can you explain the process clearly and concisely?
  4. Allow learners to complete the skill independently, but guide as required.  This is an opportunity for learners to apply their new knowledge and carry out the procedure themselves. As they do, the teacher should guide, reinforce key points and question the learners to ensure accuracy.

It is this early stage of skill development that the learner is likely to make quick gains in their performance of the task (as outlined by Fitts and Posner above), so this is arguably the most important stage for a teacher to consider when introducing new and complex practical skills.

In summary, this post has focussed on the early stages of learning a new motor skill. The discussion is supported by Kirschner, Sweller and Clark, whose work with novice learners found that minimal guidance during instruction is less effective and less efficient than explicit instruction. Here we can see that this stage of learning a new skill requires a lot of teacher input, but this needs to be done so with accurate modelling and clear explanations. My next blog post will focus on stage 2 and 3 of Fitts and Posner’s model, where the teacher begins to move towards the role of a coach to support learners with fluency/automaticity with their skills.

 

 

 

Why I do PowerPoint

There’s been a bit of a hoo-hah on Twitter today about PowerPoint (PPt). I think it began following this post from Jo Facer, which makes some fair comments. This led to a share of a previously written, more balanced argument by Robert Peal. I certainly agree with points in both, but not all. Here’s why I think we shouldn’t be so hasty in dismissing the use PPt:

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1. It provides a structure for lessons – note the term lessons. I often have a PPt that spans more than one lesson and based on the content that needs to be taught. I don’t see a problem with planning via PPt, so as long as the time spent is on thinking about the order/structure of content. Taking the time to think about the structure helps to organise my thoughts and enables me to move information around to suit the needs of the class. It’s as if I am putting my schema to paper (figuratively speaking). I could use other means to do this, but the PPt serves as a prompt during the session and means that the risk of learners missing out on crucial information is minimised.

2. The ‘visual’ argument – there’s no denying the vast body of research supporting Paivio’s Dual Coding Theory. I used to be guilty of putting reams of text on slides, which I proceeded to read to my learners and wondered why they never remembered anything. The issue was that whilst I read aloud and learners read the text (self talking), all information was entering working memory via the verbal pathway. Having developed a (basic) understanding of the theory, I began to change my approach, ensuring that more visuals were used to support explanations rather than text. Where visual information can’t be used, I keep text to a minimum, emphasising key points only. Having the visual means that the two pathways to working memory are being used, thus less of of burden for the learners (as shown below). PPt is a platform that enables me to quickly create or add visuals, meaning that all I have to concentrate on is explaining it clearly.

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3. Animations – I’m not talking the swirling and whirling of individual letters which take ages to create sentences. No, I’m talking animations to grab learners attention, to direct them to important components of visuals as they are being discussed. I have blogged about this here, but the Clark and Lyons research is a much more comprehensive read on this. Whilst there are many other ways to direct attention, PPt can be used really effectively to do so.


4. Everything in one place – Another benefit of PPt is that I can place my quiz, my content, links to reading, learner task instructions etc all in one single place. I can upload this to the Virtual Learning Environment and if learners wish to access anything, it’s all there for them. The fact that everything is in one place also helps keep my OCD in check.


5. Aesthetics – I must admit, I am guilty of putting too much time into the aesthetics of my PPts. I have got better at making the information less of a burden on the working memory; gone are the GIFs, the tenuously linked images, and text heavy slides. In spite of this, I still like to have clear, crisp, well designed slides. The fact that I put effort into making my resources look nice probably won’t get me any thanks from anyone, but with the care I place, I know that the spellings will be correct, the animations will support the learners at the right time and (I’m going to throw this out there) it’ll probably engage the learners a little more (by engage, I mean grab their attention). Whilst this probably makes no odds to the learning, it’s far better than my handwriting on a white board.


To summarise, bad PPts are bad. Similarly, bad teachers are bad; as are bad pens, bad textbooks and bad technology. There is another way and I strive to be at the opposite end of the continuum.

Teaching in New Zealand: shattering some myths

By Dr Ursula Edgington

I researched endlessly before our move to New Zealand 3 years ago. The exciting prospects that came with my husband’s new job in commerce included new academic opportunities for me. Escaping the pressures of constant nonsensical paperwork and an overwhelming teaching and marking workload seemed like a dream come true. Like lots of migrants here, we were swayed by the Government rhetoric (propaganda?) about a reportedly egalitarian education system based on holistic approaches to teaching and learning. And the promise of a healthier work/life balance with long weekends in beautiful landscapes and empty, sunny beaches….? impossible to turn down. But inevitably idealised visions of working overseas – especially in the sparsely-populated ‘paradise’ of Aotearoa New Zealand – comes with a realisation that not everything is quite what it seems…

Image source: https://goo.gl/VCegZg

Contrary to many people’s perceptions, New Zealand is not without its social problems. Reflecting similar issues to the UK, the gap between rich and poor widens. Low salaries and the high cost of living causes extreme pressure on many families; education is a not a priority. In the last 30 years, child poverty has doubled to 28%. Not surprisingly then, the OECD estimates 40% of New Zealanders don’t have the UK equivalent of level 2 in basic literacy or numeracy skills. And with no ‘NHS’, those already living in poor quality housing who can’t afford medicines, suffer diseases wiped-out a generation ago in the UK (like Rheumatic Fever). Mental health too is a serious problem, with high rates of depression inevitably leading to high levels of alcohol and drug addiction. It’s tragic that rates of suicide here are actually similar to the UK, at around 11 per 100,000 population. It’s an artificial and unhelpful (and some would argue tokenistic) ‘biculturalism’ (rather than multi-culturalism) that is the Kiwi buzzword, replicating socio-economic problems divided between ‘skilled migrants’ and the Māori/Pacifika communities.

 

You will know all too well, these issues – and more – impact significantly in complex ways on our learners’ lives and on their self-esteem and self-worth. It’s sometimes challenging to provide a safe, positive learning environment in this context.

 

But one of the unexpected challenges of teaching here is more sociological than psychological: Tall Poppy Syndrome. Often played-down in Kiwi jokes, Tall Poppy Syndrome is a common cause of bullying in the New Zealand workplace – and especially the educational workplace. The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary defines it as the act of “’cutting down’ those who are conspicuously successful or who are high achievers”. But for some employees – especially teachers from the UK who (let’s be honest) usually have to ‘big ourselves up’ just to survive in a fiercely competitive environment – it’s far from humorous and can often have a catastrophic impact on lives and families of bullying victims. Worryingly, research suggests bullying in New Zealand is a serious problem compared to international indicators.

 

So singling-out ‘tall poppy’ practitioners with ‘best practice’ is a big no-no here, and this stigma has a knock-on effect of restricting the sharing and reflection on classroom ideas. My own research is based on lesson observations – a quality control/assurance strategy so pervasive and contentious in the UK, but which is rarely actioned or even discussed here, perhaps partly because of Tall Poppy Syndrome.  

 

So after shifting on its axis, my ground has settled into this new challenge ahead. I’m faced with a dilemma: how can teachers encourage learning and development against this dispiriting backdrop? In our new smart-phone, information-mad world, knowledge drives success. But what if this success is limited or dismissed? The pressures from global competitive markets are seeping into New Zealand’s education system – slowly.  But how can students reach their true potential and outcomes improve when ‘good teaching’ (and research surrounding it) isn’t recognised or even acknowledged? When instead it’s ‘stamped out’ because some people fear that ambition might lead to others facing competency measures?

 

Are there any lessons to be learned from the UK that will help New Zealand challenge and overcome Tall Poppy Syndrome in its colleges and universities? I welcome your thoughts and suggestions.

u.edgington@gmail.com

 

1. Ursula is an independent researcher, tertiary teacher and published author, specialising in education and accountability. She has recently published a book based on psychosocial research into staff experiences of lesson observations in Further Education in England. Full academic profile: available here.
2. Employment law in New Zealand is under-developed. Culturesafe NZ Ltd is one example of an organisation with objectives that include preventing workplace bullying through training initiatives and supporting victims. For further details see: http://culturesafenz.co.nz/

10 tips to maximise learning support

This is the first of what I hope will be many guest posts on my blog. It is written by my good friend and experienced Learning Support Assistant (LSA), Paul Warren.

 

Rarely do teachers have the opportunity to explore how to work effectively with LSAs (or equivalents) in their classrooms. Both ITE and ongoing staff development sessions often fail to emphasise the importance of, and methods to enhance, the working relationship between teacher and LSA, resulting in ineffective utilisation of this key role (not in all cases, but many).  In this post, Paul highlights the pivotal role that LSAs play and he provides teachers with 10 great tips to maximise their use:

Image source: http://www.civilserviceworld.com/frontline-learning-support-assistant
‘At some point during their career, many FE lecturers will have an opportunity to work alongside a Learning Support Assistant (LSA). Usually, but not exclusively, LSAs are tasked with providing 1:1 or small group support to students with learning difficulties and/or disabilities by offering learning strategies which help them to access the curriculum. Above all, however, the ultimate aim of most LSAs is to promote independent and autonomous working for the students that they support.

 

The most effective LSAs are those which seek to work closely with the lecturer and the student to gradually reduce the need for support with a view to ultimately removing it altogether. This can create a range of possible issues – not least of which being that the LSA should expect to make themselves redundant – but the overall impetus is on helping the learner to maximise their potential to work independently.

 

Of course, some learners will require support for the entirety of their time at college, but there is no harm in working with the expectation that all students will be able to work more independently before their course of study ends.

 

Often lecturers may not have had any in-depth instruction or training regarding how best to work with LSAs. Finding information isn’t always easy. FE-specific literature or research relating to working with LSAs is scarce, but there are some schools-based studies (see the excellent Deployment and Impact of Support Staff (DISS) Project) or smaller scale FE research (see LSIS/Natspec’s highly valuable Enhancement of Learning Support) which may prove helpful. Excellence Gateway have also produced a really useful guide which can be used to gauge the impact of support staff via their Working With LSAs Audit Tool. In addition, a search on the Education and Training Foundation’s website will yield a range of resources for working with students with SEND who need support. Other additional useful and relevant sources include The 2010 Equality Act, the 2014 Children and Families Act – including Education, Health and Care Plans and The FELTAG report which, in part, highlighted the importance of providing assistive technology for FE students who need it. More current FE-specific research and general awareness is needed, however, which promotes the benefits and value of using LSAs to promote independent and autonomous working in Further Education.

 

In the meantime, the following suggestions may be useful to lecturers to help kick-start a collaboration with LSAs with a view to reducing support and increasing learner independence:

  1. Work with LSAs to review current records of student needs – particularly pinpointing any known learning strategies which encourage the learner to work independently.
  2. Cultivate high expectations of the learner by immediately working with LSAs to try to identify what independence from support might ultimately look like. Use what you find in conjunction with your identification of student needs as a guide for each session and review regularly.
  3. Agree an absolute maximum level of support that LSAs can provide before an issue or difficulty must be referred directly to the class tutor. Be clear with LSAs (and the learner) that the LSA should never do the work for the student.
  4. Identify an early target for the learner to interact directly with the lecturer at least once during every session. Increase over time in order to reduce reliance on LSAs and gradually prepare the student for the time when the support is withdrawn.
  5. Produce a measurable method of identifying the impact of support. This could be a chart or record of work that records instances in which the student does a task independently or requires minimal LSA input. If possible, actively involve the student in evaluating their own need for help and use the data to plan future support.
  6. Encourage, praise and reward students when they work independently and use successes to promote future independent learning
  7. Work with the LSA and the student to produce a portfolio of independent working strategies which the learner can take with them to further study or employment.
  8. Liaise with teacher trainers, quality managers and senior leaders to share successes of promoting learner independence and reducing LSA support.
  9. Work with your Learning Support team to build a database of what works for learners in your subject and use it to inform future individual student support needs.
  10. Share ideas and successes via social media platform such as Blogs, Twitter or YouTube (remembering to respect individual student confidentiality and identity) and get in touch with other colleges to find out how they reduce support and promote learner independence.’

 

So there we have it. Why not consider how you can develop each of the above points. Thanks go to Paul Warren @paulw_learn for this excellent post.

Do we need to know about learning theory or not?

Yes… well kind of…

Learning theory provides us with a why for the what. When we teach learners, we expect them to know the why for the what, so why wouldn’t we expect the same of teachers?

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Link to image source
The problem that many practitioners face is that they probably haven’t studied learning theory since their teacher training, and I’m certain that in some cases, much of that was ‘guff’ (Gardners MI, learning styles, learning pyramids etc etc). Much of the theory that I was taught has been debunked and I don’t even know if what I was doing as a result of learning the theory was particularly useful or not. Aside from this, there are so many theories (see above image) that it becomes difficult to determine what is useful to know and what isn’t.

 

For this reason, I recommend that the minimum that all teachers should be armed with is some objective evidence of how students learn best. I have previously written about the different types of evidence you might use to determine how students learn (here). If we know that the reason we are doing something in our classroom is because there is some objective evidence to show that it works, then we should have confidence that we are likely doing the best for our learners. If on the other hand, there is no objective evidence, or evidence that refutes something we are doing, then perhaps we need to consider what we can do better for our learners (I’m not saying that the more subjective evidence is wrong, but there might be something we can do that will be more effective). So where can we get the more objective stuff?

 

Below you will find a range of the more objective evidence that I use. I have summarised each and given a subjective rating out of 5. My rating is based on the security of evidence and how useful it is for a classroom practitioner.

 

Article/ Research Summary My Rating
Dunlosky et al (2013): What works, what doesn’t

 

This document ranks some of the more effective study strategies from cognitive and educational psychology, specifically with HE learners. It’s a very accessible and a go-to document. *****
Rosenshine (2012): Principles of Instruction

 

An overview of 10 key principles of instruction, informed by research on master teachers and cognitive science. Gives the reader classroom application and the research base. ****
Deans for Impact (2015): The Science of Learning

 

Based on the research of cognitive scientists, this is another go-to article for my trainees. The content is clear and accessible with great classroom application. Informed by *****
The Learning Scientists (2016):

Six Strategies for Effective Learning

 

Six of the most effective learning strategies from cognitive science are simplified and visualised. Highly accessible and available in a variety of formats for teachers and learners. *****
Hattie (2012):

Visible Learning

 

This isn’t a link to the book, but a pretty good review. There is a wealth of research informed strategies covered in the book. Despite a lot of criticism for his methods, this is a good starting point for understanding what is typically more effective in the classroom. ***
Marzano et al (2001): Classroom Instruction that Works

 

This is a link to the complete book. The work summarises a wealth of classroom based research. 9 research-based strategies are explored with a thorough coverage of the research and a range of applications for the classroom. A big read, but great book. ***
Education Endowment Foundation Toolkit

 

This toolkit for practitioners summarises classroom based research into 3 key elements – cost, research security and months impact on achievement. Some of the research methods used by the foundation have been scrutinised, but certainly worth exploring as a starting point. **
Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education (2015):

Top 20 Principles from Psychology for PreK-12 Teaching and Learning

This offers twenty key principles for teaching and learning based on psychology. It is accessible, but a huge document. Each principle is explained with relevance to teaching. *****

 

A need to understand cognitive architecture.

Understanding the basics of human cognitive architecture is essential to understanding effective instructional design, but how many teachers can actually remember anything about it (that’s if they were even taught it in their teacher training)?

 

Whilst there is little concrete evidence for what I am sharing, after decades of psychological studies on memory, there is a general consensus amongst psychologists, along with some empirical evidence about how memory works. Much of this stemmed from the work of Atkinson and Shriffin (1968), followed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), which I have attempted to visualise below (I did this for my students, the document can be accessed here should you wish to use):

 

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Produced by: Dan Williams @FurtherEdagogy with reference to Kirschner et al (2006)

 

With instructional design we need to understand how we can use the aforementioned information to plan and deliver information to learners that will maximise their learning. I have blogged about some instructional design approaches previously, here, here and here, though for me, the Learning Scientists and Oliver Caviglioli have really nailed it with their six study strategies.

 

 

Minimal guided instruction

Using problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching is likely to be ineffective with novices. 

 

My last post explored the difference between novices and experts, demonstrating that they think and act very differently due to a contrast in their knowledge and experience in a subject area.

 

In Further Education, specifically in vocational areas, learners arrive with little to no knowledge/experience in their subject. Take Engineering, Automotive, Hair and Beauty and Construction for example – likely to have never been studied previously.  Then there are subjects where there may be prior knowledge/experience but many misconceptions, for example English and maths. Therefore, learners are arguably still novices when they join us…

 

The thing is, there seems to be an obsession in FE to teach learners as if they are experts. CPD sessions across the country are riddled with the promotion of minimal guided instruction methods such as: discovery based, problem based, experiential and inquiry-based learning. I get it, I really do. We are trying to reach an audience that is getting hdownloadarder to reach, so if we can make the learning interesting and give learners more autonomy, then we might just crack the problem…

‘You will assume the role of a Wella colour expert and figure out what is wrong with Deirdre’s highlights’

 

The problem is, we are not doing them any favours by doing this. Once learners have a solid foundation and begin to develop expertise, then these approaches to learning may be very effective, as they can draw upon prior knowledge/experiences to assist them with their learning. Novices on the other hand don’t have this knowledge and experience to draw upon. In fact, it is likely that they will have misconceptions about the subject that, when applied to a problem based activity, may result in further confusion.

 

Future posts will examine effective methods of guided instruction, but for now I introduce you to a paper by Kirscher and colleagues explains in greater depth why minimally guided instruction is not an effective instructional design for those with limited knowledge. I have attempted to summarise this visually below:

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So to end my post. Many of our learners are novices and need guided instruction. When they are experts, we can reduce the guidance we give.

*Also, I’d like to add that I’m not completely averse to this type of instruction on occasion, when I feel that learners have sufficient knowledge.

Principles of Instruction 

Avid readers of my blog will know that I’ve developed a real liking for cognitive science. I’ve summarised key reading previously, here.  Another key reading for teachers, I feel is ‘Principles of Instruction‘ (Rosenshine, 2012). Not only does this draw upon cognitive science, but it also takes the best from classroom research and cognitive supports. I believe that any research that draws upon and finds themes across a range of evidence is worth a read to support teaching practice. In this blog post I aim to summarise each of the principles identified in the research, with some practical application.

 

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